accumulation, follicles, ovaries

An accumulation of many incompletely developed follicles in the ovaries. This condition is characterized by irregular menstrual cycles, absence of menses, multiple small cysts in the ovaries (polycystic ovaries), and infertility. Many women who have this condition also have diabetes with insulin resistance. Women with PCOS have excessively high levels of male hormones, such as testosterone. Testosterone overload can also lead to infertility, frequent miscarriages, male pattern hair thinning. Polycystic ovarian syndrome often begins with puberty and worsens with time. What are the signs and symptoms of the disease? * amenorrhea or the lack of menstruation.

* scanty or irregular menstruation * infertility * excess body hair * obesity * acne Small ovarian cysts usually don`t produce symptoms. Large cysts or multiple cysts may cause: What are the causes of PCOS? The exact cause of PCOS is not clear. Some of the possible causes include: * Abnormal ovarian function sometimes causes incompletely developed follicles (ova) to accumulate in the ovaries. These ova fail to mature and ovulate, causing them to accumulate as cysts in the ovary. * an excess release in the hormone androgen * certain genetic disorders, such as inherited metabolic disorders. Some metabolic conditions, such as diabetes. * genetic disorders that cause an increase in the production of testosterone.

* certain medications, such as those used for seizure disorders or mood disorders What are the risks? The risk of PCOS increases with: * obesity * breast cancer * cancer of the endometrium, the lining of the uterus . * high blood pressure There is no known way to prevent polycystic ovarian syndrome. How is PCOS diagnosed? A pelvic exam may reveal enlarged ovaries, as well as other symptoms of the syndrome. Ovarian cysts may be detected using ultrasound. Laparoscopy or the placement of a scope through a small incision in the abdomen can be used to look directly at the ovaries. A biopsy of the ovary may be performed.

This involves taking a small sample of ovarian tissue to be checked in a laboratory. Blood and urine tests may be used to check hormone levels. What are the long-term effects of the disease? The long-term effects of polycystic ovarian syndrome depend on the women`s condition and her response to treatment, but may include: * infertility * insulin resistance, which can contribute to obesity. * Heart disease later in life * endometrial hyperplasia, or a buildup of cells that line the uterus. Hyperplasia can lead to a higher risk of cancer of the uterus later in life. What are the treatments for the disease? There are many ways to treat polycystic ovarian syndrome, depending on the symptoms.

Treatment can include: * Oral contraceptives, surgery, weight loss.

benign tumor, fibrous tissues